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Topictheory This article is about the relationship between self-construal and verbal promotion Although not specifically defined in the paper self-construal is the intrapersonal communication in which individuals in this case American college students relate themselves to being connected to or separate from others One theory suggests that an individual who has a strong interdependent self-construal will verbally promote others when attempting to appear competent On the other hand the second theory suggests that an individual who has a strong independent self-construal will verbally promote the self Therefore Ellis and Wittenbaum aimed to link self-construal with observed communication behavior in an interactive settingPg 3 Research Question Through research Ellis and Wittenbaum found that the higher ones independent self-construal the more likely the individual is to desire achievement beyond others to enhance self-esteem The higher ones interdependent self-construal the more likely the individual is to seek achievement for the purpose of pleasing and acknowledging othersPg 3 From this Ellis and Wittenbaum formed the question that would be the basis for their study What positive image of the achieving self do individuals strategically choose to present to an evaluator depending on their self-construalsPg3 Methods Three methods were used in gathering the appropriate information The first method was a survey Kim and Leungs 1997 29-item revised Self-Construal Scale was administered to 196 students enrolled in communication classes at a large Midwestern university in the United States The scale contained two dimensions independence and interdependence The students were asked to rate each statement from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree Those with extreme scores in either direction were asked to participate in the second part of the study Of the original 196 students 43 participated in the second half This part of the study involved tricking the students into thinking they were competing for an award in excellence and a 50 prize The second method used was an interview administered over a telephone in the research room Upon
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