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A transformer is a device that raises or lowers voltage and is used mostly with alternating current or ac A transformer has no moving parts is simple rugged durable and can be up to ninety-nine percent efficient Cities use a large amount of power and power is based on the amount of current in electricity A transformer works by changing the amount of voltage and current of electricity When voltage is increased current in electricity is decreased or if voltage is decreased current in electricity is increased Sending a large amount of current through power lines would be very inefficient and large amounts of current would mean that larger conductors would have to be made or a larger amount of electricity would have to be produced to make up for the loss of power The reason that larger conductors would have to be used if transformers were not used is because the current in electricity causes heat and the larger the conductor used the more current can be sent through it without producing as much heat The friction of atoms moving back and forth sending the electricity through the conductor produces the heat When the heat is made though that means that the atoms are turning the electricity into heat instead of sending it to homes or business where the electricity is supposed to go Most homes use 120 volts to 240 volts of electricity and some businesses use 480 volts or more of electricity Using voltage this low though means that the current of electricity is high When the voltage is increased that means that the electricity has less current Most power plant generators produce electricity at 13000 to 22000 volts and if the electricity has a long way to travel then the voltage is usually raised 1000 volts per mile A transformer then steps down the electricity outside or sometimes inside a home or business to the rating that the specific appliance or
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