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Rosa Louise Parks was born Rosa McCauley on February 4 1913 in Tuskegee Alabama She was named after her grandmother Rose Percival Rosa was raised by her mother Leona Edward McCauley on her grandparents farm at Pine Level a small community outside Montgomery Rosa received her primary education in a segregated rural school In 1924 she enrolled at the private Montgomery Industrial School for Girls known as Miss Whites School It was so named after its principal and cofounder Alice L White All the students were African-Americans and all the teachers were white women from the North She married Raymond Parks and began living in Montgomery Alabama in 1932 In Montgomery Rosa and Raymond learned about the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP The NAACP worked to help black people gain their civil rights In 1943 Rosa joined the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP She was elected its secretary and assisted the chapters president Mr ED Nixon Rosa and Raymond devoted much of their time and energy to the organization One cause they felt strongly about was the right to vote On December 1 1955 in Montgomery Alabama Rosa refused to give up her bus seat to a white man When asked to move to let a white bus rider be seated she refused She did not argue and she did not move The police were called and Mrs Parks was arrested There were 36 seats on each bus operated by Montgomery City Lines Inc The 10 seats in the front were reserved for whites only Even if there were no whites on the bus blacks could not sit in the front seats Instead they had to sit in the last 10 seats of the bus The bus drivers could choose which passengers sat in the 16 seats in the middle Blacks could take the seats only if no whites wanted them Mrs Parks action led to the Montgomery
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