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Research Methodology Mosso table Intuition Ex of drunk driving What is Scientific Inquiry Scientific method an objective examination of the natural world Four goals -What happened -When it happened -What causes it to happen -Why it happens First goal description observation Second goal prediction when it occurs Third goal causal control systematically varying the situation Fourth goal explanation understanding why it happens Scientific questions can be objectively answered Empirical questions questions that can be answered by observing and measuring the world around us Ex Scientific questions can be tested and either confirmed or shown to be false Doesnt matter what the scientists think or believes Replication other researchers repeat and confirm the results of earlier studies The empirical process depends on theories hypotheses research 3 essential elements 1 Theory is an idea or model of how something in the world works 2 Hypothesis which is a specific prediction of what should be observed if the theory under consideration is correct 3 Research involves the systematic and careful collection of data or objective information to examine or test whether the given hypothesis is indeed tenable Good research reflects cyclical interaction between theses three elements Theory Alcohol intoxication impairs driving skills Data Measures seconds a person can stand on one leg after drinking alcohol Hypothesis People who are intoxicated will show less motor coordination Theories should generate hypotheses Good theory testable hypotheses simplicity Ex Jean Piaget infant child development Sigmund Freud Interpretation of Dreams Law of parsimony when 2 competing theories exist to explain the same phenomenon the simpler of the 2 theories is generally preferred
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