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INTRODUCTION Adenosine triphosphate is the source of about 95 of the bodys energy requirements The body burns food storing some of the energy in the bonds of ATP When these bonds are broken the energy is released supplying the body with energy for other reactions ATP is simultaneously an ester an alkanoic acid and an anhydride ATP has a chemical formula of C10H16N5O13P3 and a CAS number of 56-65-5 Its molecular weight is 50719 ATP is a nucleotide a small organic molecule with three major components A five-carbon sugar ribose adenine - a nitrogen-containing compound that is also one of the bases of DNA and RNA and three phosphate units each composed of a phosphorous atom and four oxygen atoms PROPERTIES The most important property of ATP is obviously its ability to function as an energy carrier Energy is stored in the covalent bonds between the phosphates shown as in Diagram 1 When the third phosphate group is removed by hydrolysis ATP H2O ADP P energy ADP is adenosine diphosphate which has one less phosphate unit than ATP P is an inorganic phosphorous atom that is usually transferred to the molecule where the energy is required in a process known as phosphorylation This reaction produces a substantial amount of energy the amount varies depending upon conditions but under normal cell condition 73Kcalmol is produced The effect of pH is one way in which the amount of energy produced changes Under acidic conditions more protons are available which reduces the negative charge of the ATP lowering the amount of energy produced Eg at pH 4 E -64 kcal at pH 7 E -73 kcal at pH 9E -98 kcal ATP is an endergonic molecule this means that it requires energy to be formed The phosphate bonds of ATP are remarkable structures The formation of these bonds requires a larger than normal input of energy This is due to two reasons 1
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