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Biotechnology is the third wave in biological science and represents such an interface of basic and applied sciences where gradual and subtle transformation of science into technology can be witnessed Biotechnology is defined as the application of scientific and engineering principals to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services Biotechnology comprises a number of technologies based upon increasing understanding of biology at the cellular and molecular level The Bible already provides numerous examples of biotechnology Namely it deals with the conversion of grapes to wine of dough to bread and of milk to cheese The oldest biotechnological processes are found in microbial fermentations as born out by the Babylonian tablet dated circa 6000 BC explaining the preparation of beer The Sumerians were able to brew as many as twenty types of beer in the third millennium BC In about 4000 BC leavened bread was produced with the aid of yeast During Vedic period 5000-7000 BC Aryans had been performing daily Agnihotra or Yajna In Ayurved production of Asava and Arista using different substrates and flowers of mahua Madhuca indica or dhataki Wodfordia fructicosa has been well characterized till today since Vedic period One of the materials used in Yajna is animal fat ie ghee which is fermented product of milk The term biotechnology was described in a Bulletin of the Bureau of Biotechnology published in July 1920 from the office of the same name in Leeds in Yorkshire The articles in this bulletin described the varied roles of microbes in leather industry to pest control There are numerous sub-fields of biotechnology They are 1 Red biotechnology is biotechnology applied to medical processes Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics and the engineering of genetic cures to cure diseases through genomic manipulation 2 White biotechnology also known as grey biotechnology is biotechnology applied to industrial processes An example is the designing of an organism to produce a
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