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Culture as defined by Haviland is The ideals values and beliefs members of a society share to interpret experience and generate behavior The three patterns of subsistence Hunter-gather Horticultural and Pastoral all have unique cultural characteristics Hunter-gather the oldest of the three means of subsistence relies only on what resources can be drawn from nature Hunter-Gathering is one of the most efficient means of survival and produces no surplus Tribes of this nature can usually be found in areas unsuitable for Horticulture Horticulture sometimes known as extensive cultivation originated some 9000 years ago and consists of the care of several species of plant life and of some gatheringBarger 2000 pA104 Horticulturists are found most often in tropical forests and employ a slash and burn method known as swidden farmingHaviland 1999 p176 Pastoralism in the words of Haviland is the practice of animal husbandry or the production of reco urses that never existed in nature in that form Pastoral societies practice nomadism and have hard lives This essay will show the cultural differences between Hunter-gathers Horticulturalists and Pastoralists and why they are important for that culture Hunter-gathers follow a pattern of seasonal nomadism along a set route which corresponds with the availability of water and food and exist in small groups of 15-40 individualsThe fact that they have small groups makes for a relatively effective means of existence as the population is well below the carrying capacity of the land and movement allows the land to recover Some societies of bushman use a primitive form of birth control in which the child will suckle for 4-5 years in order to stop the female from ovulating as she can only support one infant at a timeJim Anderson lecture 6 The groups or bands which these nomadic Hunter-gathers exist in are made up of extended family members Hunter-gathers follow an egalitarian life style with a division of labor between men and women Men provide the
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