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Analytical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry principally concernedwith determining the chemical composition of materials which may be solids liquidsgases pure elements compounds or complex mixtures In addition chemical analysis cancharacterize materials but determining their molecular structures and measuring suchphysical properties as pH color and solubility Wet analysis involves the studying ofsubstances that have been submerged in a solution and microanalysis uses substances invery small amounts Qualitative chemical analysis is used to detect and identify one ormore constituents of a sample This process involves a wide variety of tests Ideally thetests should be simple direct and easily performed with available instruments andchemicals Test results may be an instrument reading and observation of a physicalproperty or a chemical reaction Reactions used in qualitative analysis may attempt tocause a characteristic color odor precipitate or gas appear Identification of anunknown substance is accomplished when a known one is found with identical properties Ifnone is found the uknown substance must be a newly identified chemical Tests should notuse up excessive amounts of a material to be identified Most chemical methods ofqualitative analysis require a very small amount of the sample Advance instrumentaltechniques often use less than one millionth of a gram An example of this is massspectrometry Quantitative chemical analysis is used to determine the amounts ofconstituents Most work in analytical chemistry is quantitative It is also the mostdifficult In principle the analysis is simple One measures the amount of sample Inpractice however the analysis is often complicated by interferences among sampleconstituents and chemical separations are necessary to isolate tthe analyte or removeinterfering constituents The choice of method depends on a number of factors Speed CostAccuracy Convenience Available equipment Number of samples Size of sample Nature ofsample and Expected concentration Because these factors are interrelated any finalchoice of analytical method involves compromises and it is impossible to specify a singlebest method to carry out a given analysis in all laboratories under all conditions Sinceanalyses are carried out
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