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OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE SCHOOLS EXAMINATION BOARDGeneral Certificate Examination - Advanced LevelChemistry Salters - Paper 3 mockROBERT TAYLOR U6JWTHE ROLE CATALYSTS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS THEIR IMPORTANCE IN INDUSTRYPROBLEMS AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS A Catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reactionThe catalyst remains unchanged at the end of the reaction The processis called catalysis In this report I aim going to explain the role of catalysts in chemical reactions and their importance in industry I will also outline the problems associated with the use of some catalysts and discuss using appropriate examples new developments in this area which will help reduce damage to the environmentThe process of catalysis is essential to the modern day manufacturingindustry Ninety per cent over a trillion dollars worth of manufactured items are produced with the help of catalysts every year It is therefore logical that scientists are constantly searching for new improved catalysts which will improve efficiency or produce agreater yield An acidic catalyst works due its acid nature Catalysts are strong acids and readily give up hydrogen ions or protons H Protons can bereleased from hydrated ions for example H3O but more commonly they are released from ionisable hydroxyl groups R-OH where the O-H bond is broken to produce R-O- and H When the reactant receives protons from an acid it undergoes a conformational change change inshape and configuration and becomes a reactive intermediate The intermediate can then either become an isomer by returning a proton tothe catalyst or it may undergo a further reaction and form a completely new moleculeUp until the mid - 1960s silica-alumina gels were used to catalyse thecracking of hydrocarbons This form of cracking is where the large molecules in oil are converted into small highly volatile molecules However because the size of the pores of silica-alumina gels was so variable ranging from 01nm to 50nm and the fact that their shape was so variable they were hardly ideal catalysts Due to the
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