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Revolution can be defined as radical or rapid change Revolutions whether called by that name or not have greatly changed the world Three revolutions prior to 1700 were the Enlightenment the Crusades and the RenaissanceThe enlightenment was a movement that sought to shine the light of reason on traditional ideas about government and society During the Enlightenment sometimes called the Age of Reason thinkers fought against superstition ignorance intolerance and tyranny Enlightenment thinkers promoted goals of material well-being social justice and worldly happiness Their ideas about government and society stood in sharp contrast to the old principles of divine right rule a rigid social hierarchy and the promise of a better life in heaven Since the 1700s enlightenment ideas have spread challenging established traditions around the world During the Enlightenment two English thinkers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke set forth ideas that became key to the Enlightenment Hobbes believed that people were naturally cruel greedy and selfish If not strictly controlled they would fight rob and oppress one another Life in the state of nature without laws or other controls would be solitary poor nasty brutish and short To escape the brutish life people entered into a social contract an agreement by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society He believed that only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society Such a government was an absolute monarchy which could impose order and compel obedience John Locke believed that people were reasonable and moral Further they had natural rights or rights that belonged to all humans from birth These included the rights to life liberty and property He said the best government had limited power and was accepted by all its citizens Locke rejected absolute monarchy He said that if a government fails to fulfill its obligations to its people then the people have the right to either overthrow or change the government Another Revolution was the Crusades In the
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