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Douglas M McGregor Mr McGregor theorizes that management views an employees motivation toward work in two distinct waysTheory X and Theory Y Theory X managers believe the following 1 The average worker naturally does not like work and will avoid it whenever possible 2 Managers must always control motivate and direct their employees to perform well 3 Most workers prefer being directed avoid responsibility and seek job security On the other hand Theory Y managers assume the following 1 Employees enjoy working 2 Managers do not need to control and punish workers to accomplish organizational goals 3 Workers will be committed to an organization if their work is satisfying 4 Managers should arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives Kolb et al 1995 p 62 The theory McGregor believes will best stimulate employee motivation toward accomplishing organizational goals is Theory Y The goal of Theory Y is to provide employees ways to attain the higher levels of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs esteem ego and self-actualization -fulfillment so that the establishment may prosper McGregor thinks that most organizations today already fulfill the lower needs of employees physiological safety and love social and therefore should concentrate on the higher needs of individuals Therefore McGregor says that management should try to develop a relationship based on two-way trust between management and employees This should enable self-direction increased productivity and possibly the creation of better methods to complete tasks more efficiently Furthermore McGregor points out that management should not expect to see significant changes when first initiating his theory Change is slow to come but in the long-run companies will see improvements in employee motivation towards their work
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