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Part A Summary Introduction Andrew Abbotts book The System of Professions An Essay on the Division of Expert Labour contains a mix of comparative historical analysis and current evaluation which is assembled within an analytical model that looks at professions from the viewpoint of their jurisdictions the tasks they do the expert knowledge needed for those tasks and how competitive forces internally and externally work to change both the jurisdictions and the tasks Abbott attempts to show that professions are interdependent systems containing internal structures He accomplishes this task by means of analyzing the emergence of modern professions and their relationships with each other cooperatively and competitively Section I Work Jurisdiction and Competition Abbotts book takes on an individualistic direction in its inception then moves to a more systematic view of professions Modern studies of formal professions began with the rise of the discipline of social sciences in the 19th century In the beginning scholars debated about the theoretical interpretations of professionalism There was a split between proponents of functionalist and monopolistic approaches However academics on both sides agreed that a profession was an occupational group with some special skill Abbott 1988 7 Abbott mentions that there have been four different perspectives that have sought to interpret professionalization a functional structural monopolistic and a cultural view Abbott states that the tasks of professions are to provide expert service to amend human problems Abbott 1988 33 These problems can be objective in that they originate naturally or through technological imperatives Problems can also be subjective whereby they are imposed by society or a culture either from the present or past Abbott argues that the real difference between the objective and subjective qualities of problems is a difference in amenability to cultural work Abbott 1988 36 Abbott outlines that there are several types of objective foundations for professional tasks Some being technological some organizational other sources of objective qualities lay in natural
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