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The idea of the robot replacing the need for human intelligence is a startling thought Could these machines develop beyond our control This section explains what Artificial Intelligence is and the scientific skills involved What is Artificial Intelligence AI The term Artificial Intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy in 1956 when he proposed that intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it He now defines AI as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines especially intelligent computer programs AI is generally associated with Computer Science but it has many important links with other fields such as Maths Psychology Cognition Biology and Philosophy among many others Strong and Weak AI Artificial Intelligence is often divided into two classes Strong AI and Weak AI Strong AI makes the bold claim that computers can be made to think on a level at least equal to humans that they are capable of cognitive mental states This is the kind of AI that is portrayed in movies like Blade Runner and more recently AI Weak AI simply states that some thinking-like features can be added to computers to make them more useful tools that machines can simulate human cognition in other words act as if they are intelligent This has already started to happen for example speech recognition software The Turing Test The Turing Test is an experiment suggested by mathematician Alan Turing in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence He argued that if a machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent In the Turing test a judge has conversations via teletype with two systems one human the other a machine The conversations can be about anything and proceed for a set period of time If at the end of this time the judge cannot distinguish the machine from the human on the basis of the conversation
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