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Introduction At the beginning of the sixteenth century the Catholic Church modeled upon the bureaucratic structure of the Holy Roman Empire has become extremely powerful but internally corrupt From early in the twelfth century onward there were calls for reform Between 1215 and 1545 nine church-councils were held with church reforms as their primary intent The councils all fail to reach significant accord The clergy was unable to live according to church doctrine and the abuse of church ceremonies and practices continued The Reformation was a movement within Western Christendom to purge the church of medieval abuses and to restore the doctrines and practices that the reformers believed conformed with the Bible and the New Testament model of the church But besides the more evident spiritual cause of Reformation there were two more economical and political Paragraph 1 The preparation for reformation was long Opponents of Orthodox views had asserted themselves over the centuries and in the 14th century John Wyclif had led a dissident movement From 1377 he made many vigorous attacks in both Latin and English on Orthodox Church doctrines especially that of transubstantiation He spread the doctrine that the Scriptures are the supreme authority and that the good offices of the church are not essential to grace The desire for change was also increased by the appearance of humanism and the spirit of the Renaissance The level of education was raised and Study of the ancient Greek and Hebrew texts concentrated attention on the Bible and evoked a new critical spirit demonstrated by many people The very founding of the University of Wittenberg which was to be the center of revolt was part of the urge to humanism Through its emphasis on the biblical languages the Renaissance led to Martin Luthers doctrinal reinterpretation It can be truthfully said that Reformation got a jumpstart when an Augustinian university professor named Martin Luther posted on the door of
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