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Word Count: 1,246
After the revolutions of 1848 Europe formed a new way of looking at the world They were no longer optimistic about the future rather they were cynical and realistic Many new thoughts and ideas emerged as a result of this one of the most prominent being thoughts on evolution In 1859 Charles Darwin wrote and published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection which is thought by some to have brought about a new science In sum the argument was that life originated and continued through constant struggle in which species with random mutations were better suited to changing conditions survived to produce offspring while those that did not possess said mutations became extinct Darwins ideas radically affected societys self-conception challenged relationship between God and man and spurred the development of the scientific field of evolution and less scientific ideas such as Social Darwinism After The Origin of Species was completed Darwin sent copies to all of the great scientific minds of the time Not only to those who would agree with his ideas but also those who would vehemently oppose them While many wrote fervent negative reviews of his book he also formed a loyal following including Hooker Lyell and most importantly Huxley Up until the book was published Huxley had simply supported Darwin although not entirely convinced However he remained decisively on Darwins side after the copious evidence and Darwins brilliant reason While Darwin was weak and tired from illness Huxley was renowned for his fiery temper and was referred as Darwins bulldog by many for his willingness to steadfastly defend Darwins ideas of evolution by natural selection For this reason William Irvine argues that Darwin caused history and Huxley made it 8 As an example Huxley had a chance to test his teeth in a debate that took place in 1860 Darwins most vocal critics were Sedgwick Richard Owen and the Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce During the
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