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There are many different structures and areas inside the brain I will discuss four of them with you They are the thalamus hypothalamus endocrine and limbic systems In this paper I will discuss the location of each structure in the brain its functions and disorderspathology related to damage to these structures We begin with the thalamus the thalamus is a mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brain just below the cerebrum and resembles a large egg in size and shape It consists of a subcortical structure The thalamus receives and passes on all of the sensory impulses except those of smell transmitting them to higher nerve centers such as the cerebal cortex In addition it connects various brain centers with others Cerebrovascular accidents or strokes can cause thalamic syndrome which results in a burning or aching sensation on one half of a body often accompanied by mood swings Wikipedia 2005 Next is the hypothalamus The hypothalamus is an important supervisory center in the brain rich in ganglia nerve fibers and synaptic connections It is made up of several sections called nuclei each of which controls a specific function The hypothalamus regulates body temperature blood pressure heartbeat metabolism of fats and carbohydrates and sugar levels in the blood Some neurons in the hypothalamus control arousal emotions food and water intake or hunger and thirst sexual behavior and temperature Through direct attachment to the pituitary gland the hypothalamus also controls water balance and milk production in the female Furthermore it is the intermediary link between the nervous system and the endocrine system by synthesizing and secreting neurohormones wwwwikipediaorg A few of them would be thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH growth hormone-releasing hormone GHRH corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH somatostatin and dopamine The neurons that secrete GnRH are linked to the limbic system the limbic system is the part of the body that controls emotions and sexual activity Next we discuss the endocrine system
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