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Accounts of what can no longer be termed unspeakable acts of violence and terror assault us daily Newspapers and televisions capture the carnage and chaos that increasingly suggest the near-death of civility and the sure unraveling of the fabric of culture and society How are we to understand the escalation of violence that threatens us as individuals and as a society What are we to do in the face of the societal and cultural disintegration that follows in the wake of such terror This worldwide escalation of violence and the unsettling questions it raises is the subject of Gil Bailies book Violence Unveiled Humanity at the Crossroads In Violence Unveiled Bailie makes accessible to a wide audience the groundbreaking work of the French cultural critic and theorist Ren Girard At the heart of Girards theory is the idea that violence creates the foundations of culture According to Girard human beings are mimetic by nature meaning we imitate those we most love by desiring what they desire and now possess That is to say human beings are deeply driven by the desire to possess what belongs to the beloved Desire turns to envy envy to rivalry and rivalry creates an untenable conflict at the heart of our most intimate relationships namely the conflict generated by feelings of intense anger and rage directed at those we most love for possessing what we most desire Such deep conflict if left unresolved undermines the stability of society and threatens its very preservation Girard maintains that society attends to this conflict and the destructive violent impulses it generates by creating the cultural myth of the scapegoat -- the witch the heretic the outsider the disease-bearer the Jew -- who is arbitrarily identified and selected as the source of the conflict Ridiculed tortured expelled murdered or sacrificed the scapegoat both satisfies and discharges the violence embedded deeply in our psyches while simultaneously keeping safe societys most important relationships Scapegoating thus prevents
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