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Bhumendra Jadubans Dr Ronnie Klein Question 3 Glaucon and Adeimantus challenges justice by way of three views these views are 1 Glaucons social contract theory 358e-359b 2 The story of Gyges Ring 359b-360e and 3 The comparison of lives 360e-362c Adeimantus says that according to the most common defenses of justice that are offered the advantages of justice come from seeming just not from being just 362e-367a In other words people are only just because of the penalties that follow if being unjust had no penalties then surely everyone would be unjust Socrates says in order to answer this challenge he needs to know what justice is Socrates explains that it will be easier if we talk about justice in the city as a whole rather then the individual 368d-e Plato or Socrates answers the question via three parts - 1Plato presents a division of the soul into 3 parts - the appetitive part the spirited part and the rational part 436a-441b 2 Plato gives an explanation of the virtues in terms of these 3 parts of the soul similar to his account of the virtues of the city 441c-444b and 3 Plato uses this account of the virtues to explain very vaguely why the virtuous person is always happier than the vicious person 444c-445c Platos first part of the soul is the appetite which includes all our myriad desires for various pleasures comforts physical satisfactions and bodily ease There are so many of these appetites that Plato didnt bother to mention but he does note that they can often be in conflict even with each other The second is the spirited or hot-blooded part ie the part that gets angry when it perceives ie an injustice being done This is the part of us that loves to face and overcome great challenges the part that can steel itself to adversity and that loves victory winning challenge and honor Note that Platos use of
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