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Herbert Marcuse ONE Dimensional Man One-Dimensional Society 1 The New Forms of Control A comfortable smooth reasonable democratic unfreedom prevails in advanced industrial civilization a token of technical progress Indeed what could be more rational than the suppression of individuality in the mechanization of socially necessary but painful performances the concentration of individual enterprises in more effective more productive corporations the regulation of free competition among unequally equipped economic subjects the curtailment of prerogatives and national sovereignties which impede the international organization of resources That this technological order also involves a political and intellectual coordination may be a regrettable and yet promising development The rights and liberties which were such vital factors in the origins and earlier stages of industrial society yield to a higher stage of this society they are losing their traditional rationale and content Freedom of thought speech and conscience were-just as free enterprise which they served to promote and protect-essentially critical ideas designed to replace an obsolescent material and intellectual culture by a more productive and rational one Once institutionalized these rights and liberties shared the fate of the society of which they had become an integral part The achievement cancels the premises To the degree to which freedom from want the concrete substance of all freedom is becoming a real possibility the liberties which pertain to a state of lower productivity are losing their former content Independence of thought autonomy and the right to political opposition are being deprived of their basic critical function in a society which seems increasingly capable of satisfying the needs of the Individuals through the way in which it is organized Such a society may justly demand acceptance of its principles and institutions and reduce the opposition to the discussion and promotion of alternative policies within the status quo In this respect it seems to make little difference whether the increasing satisfaction of needs is accomplished
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