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1Executive summary In this paper I look at how organisations develop culture and how this culture can be created manipulated and changed my management I also look at what other factors can change and affect a companies culture The paper will take the following format A definition of culture and the problems associated with its definition I then look at how organisationl culture develops with an explanation of the levels of cultural analysis a look at the various different types of culture and the role of the leadermanager in creating the organisations culture How culture can be changed and the skills and actions needed by management to successfully implement a cultural change I then finish with a conclusion 2Defining organisational culture What is organisational culture This it has been found is not an easy question to answer The concept of culture has its roots in anthropology the study of human affairs In this context culture has been used to designate two different things A tribe or a social group is studied as a culture that produces and may have cultural artefacts The second use of the term refers to aspects within a given culture such as customs rituals knowledge and so on Sackman S 1991 In the context of organisational culture it is largely the second approach that is studied Although people may not be aware consciously of culture it still has a persuasive influence over their behaviour and actions Mullins L 2002 This statement explains that although we may not have the knowledge that we belong to a certain cultural group it will still have an impact on our behaviour and in an organisational sense our working lives The culture concept began to affect organisational thinking in the late 1970s and early 1980s Although is it evident in ideas from a number of earlier writers for example Bernard 1938 and Jacques 1952 If we look at a number of different of organisations
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