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Industrialization Affects the Physical Environment The Factories poured out soot-filled smoke out of the large black chimneys Industrialization spurred many physical affects on the environment some were positive and some negative Industrialization promoted many new inventions The first of many machines that manufactured goods was the cloth-making machines These power-driven spindles made the production of yarn cheaper and faster than the muscle driven hand spinners Spinning machines looms and the steam engine brought about a major change in this era because with all the new uses for machinery iron and coal were put to use Iron parts replaced wooden parts of machines because iron is much stronger than wood and didnt wear as easily Coal was very abundant in Englands mines so coal became very important because it introduced a thrifty way to smelt iron Also coal became very significant in the power for steam engines Hunt p469 Before the use of machinery could really thrive an improved method of transportation needed to be met This would present a better way to transport raw materials to factories and finished products from the factories to be sold Early eighteenth-century roads were rut-filled dirt trails John Macadam invented Macadam roads These roads were made out of a combination of stones and mud that was rolled securely together until smooth and hard About 1800 canals that connected iron and coal mine to factories were built Then in 1837 these canals began to be replaced by railroads The first railroads were essentially steam driven wagons that ran on iron rails About 1848 the development of national railroad system was being constructed Hunt p 471 Seeing as all the industrialization was occurring many workers and their families started moving to the cities for work Men women and children began working in these dirty factories with hours as long as sixteen hours a day These factories had many strict rules and children were often beat if they didnt obey
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