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Two clashing movements existed within Russia in the 19th century In the rural areas existed a movement that could hardly be called a movement It was in fact more of a planted fixture The indigenous foundation that had existed for time immemorial kept alive the spirit of the land and the system of a subjugated underclass Many of the elements that were most representative of this fixture actually existed in the underclass the pre-emancipation serfs and post-emancipation peasants This movement rarely had a visible voice because it was uneducated and unexposed to the means of amplification Other writers of the time presented idealized conceptions of the fundamental aspects of these indigenous people Ivan Turgenev in his serialized Sketches from a Hunters Album attempted to capture the plight of this group In this work can also be seen the fundamental human characteristics of these people Two particular pieces Living Relic and Kasyan from the Beautiful Lands ignored the hardships of the peasants and focused on the description of two quintessential examples of the eastern conception of man In Living Relic the subject is Lukeria a completely disabled peasant who lives alone in a shed on the narrators estate Kasyan the focus of the other story is a quiet wandering peasant The ideas of the west came sweeping in through the cities The proponents of the western movement often looked to rationally tear away the mystical covering that Russia had unconsciously used to cover its unprogressive ways This group had a loud voice and knew how to use it Because of the plethora of proponents the westernizers moral or historical teachings cannot be reduced to a single voice However Nicholas Cherneshevsky represented many of the most important characteristics of the westernizers most fundamentally in his pure faith in rationality Cherneshevsky of course had specific lessons of utility that sprung from his own rationality He believed that rationality could only lead one to the pursuit of maximum pleasure
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