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Topic 1 Business Management And Change Management Theories Classicalscientific approaches ApproachSpecialised efficiency-oriented systems of management TimingFrom the turn of the century well into the 1930s A legacy of the Industrial Revolution and the social structure of the times a potentially large workforce of relatively uneducated disempowered people Management principlesHierarchical systems based on principles of specialisation centralisation and formality Specialised tasks exist in specialised departments with responsibility formally designated Span of control is narrow and a unitary line of command is in place RelevanceGreat benefits from a consumer viewpoint with the availability of a wide range of consumer goods Problems centred on the dehumanising autocratic nature of the efficiency-driven system and the assumption that the needs of workers matched those of management Behavioural human approaches ApproachChanged approach to the way the work situation was seen Managers dealt with people aspects of their organisation The group played a more significant role TimingBecame important following the 1922 to 1937 Hawthorne studies of the Western Electric Company and the Great Depression of the time Continued to the 1970s Management principlesSupportive leadership Managerial focus on group support and wide spans of control in a flat organisational structure consisting of a hierarchy of interlocking groups RelevanceThe conflict of interest between management and workers was recognised Practices appeared to work as prosperity continued into the 1970s with growing domestic markets and high family incomes in Western economies Behavioural management practices were overwhelmed by the application of systems models of management Systems contingency approaches ApproachSystems adopted by management need to be contingent on the stability or lack of it in the organisations particular environment TimingSystems theory concepts and language were in place in the 1960s and dominated management thinking in the 1970s The rapidly changing competitive world economy and the crisis facing western enterprises precipitated the systems approach Management principlesDifferentiation The organisation is a system The way the separate parts interrelate defines the system Integration depends on shared norms values and
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