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What a manager does and how it is done can be categorised by Henri Fayols four functions of management Planning Organising Leading and Controlling Through these functions managers can be catalysts for change or by definition change agents People who act as catalysts and manage the change processRobbins Bergman Stagg and Coulter 2000 p438 Wether performing the role of the change agent or not change is an integral part of a managers job Change is An alteration in people structure or technologyRobbins et al 2000 p437 Change occurs within and around organisations today at an unprecedented speed and complexity Change poses threats and creates opportunities The fact that change creates opportunities is reason why managers need to encourage change What a manager can change falls distinctively into the three categories stated in the definition of change people structure and technology The manager can make alterations in these areas in an attempt to adapt to or facilitate change The change of people involves changing attitudes expectations perceptions and behaviour These changes ar used to help people within organisations to work together more effectively Changing structure relates to job design job specialisation hierarchy formalisation and all other organisational structural variables These changes are ones that need to be flexible and not static to be adaptable to change Technological change entails modification of work processes and methods and the introduction of new equipment Changes in this area have been enormous especially in the areas of computing and communications An organisations environment has both specific and general components or micro and macro environments The organisation also has its own personality or culture This environment and culture can be the generator of forces for change Needs from within the organisation can stimulate change these are internal forces for change Of course the distinction between external and internal forces is blurred because an internally induced change may be prompted by the perception of an external eventBarney Griffin 1992 p755 Todays
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