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Running Head Cognitive Impairments The definition of mental retardation is made up of three classifications The onset must be recognized before the age of 18 the individual must show deficits in adaptive behavior and have a sub-average intellectual level Wong D 1995 General intellectual function is determined by IQ which is measured with one or more standardized and individually administered intelligence tests Mental retardation is not based solely on IQ Adaptive function must be significantly impaired as well The degree of severity of mental retardation is classified as mild IQ mild 5055-70 moderate IQ 3540-5055 severe IQ 2025-3540 and profound IQ below 2025 Bowden V Dickey S Greenberg C 1998 In 1975 the Education For All Handicapped Children Act was enacted This law represented an educational bill of rights for all handicapped children It provided free appropriate and individualized education in the least restrictive environment for individuals 6 to 21 years of age One component of the law requires and Individual Education Program IEP for all children receiving services The plan is to be child centered and address the long-tern developmental needs of the child Bowden V Dickey S Greenberg C 1998 Nurses are involved in IEP in a variety of ways They may be a patient advocate for the families be involved in making referrals and recommendations They may help interpret complicated health care reports and will inform other members of the team about the childs health care needs Impairments 3 Rehabilitation trends and the care of a developmentally disabled child are based on five basic principles A developmental approach is used instead of chronological age This emphasizes the childs abilities and strengths rather than disabilities A developmental focus also considers family development A model of family development is based on the changing ages and developmental needs of both the children and the adults as well as on the changing demands by external forces and
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