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Naturalism in literature is in essence an approach that proceeds from an analysis of reality in terms of natural forces like heredity environment and physical drives Naturalism has its roots in the renaissance its backgrounds in the Middle Ages Walcutt 4 ONE Authors in the Naturalist movement tended to deal with the harsh often disgusting aspects of life The subject matter in naturalist works differs from realism in that it often deals with those raw and unpleasant experiences which reduce characters to shameful behavior in their struggle to survive These characters are mostly from the lower middle or the lower classes They are poor uneducated and unsophisticated The setting is most often the commonplace and the unheroic and life is usually the monotonous routine of daily existence But the naturalist discovers those qualities in such characters usually associated with the heroic or adventurous in their dealings with such everyday and routine happenings The suggestion is that life on its lowest levels is not so simple as it seems to be There is also almost always discussion or inference of fate that affects a character and to that end the controlling force is generally society and the surrounding environment Characters from this movement are conditioned and controlled by environment heredity chance or instinct They do however have compensating humanistic values which affirm their individuality and life Thus their struggle in life becomes heroic and they maintain their human dignity The primary goal of the late nineteenth-century American Naturalists was not to demonstrate the overwhelming and oppressive reality of the material forces present in our lives Their attempt rather was to represent the intermingling in life of controlling forces and individual worth TWO The founder of the Naturalist movement in Literature was Emile Zola Zola redefined Naturalism as Nature seen through a temperament Emile Zola was born in Paris and his father died when Emile was only seven leaving his family with substantial financial problems His
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