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The US has experienced new ways of establishing and encouraging capitalist economic expansion and political constancy and social order in the USA and other countries this is through the concept known as modernisation Modernisation is best understood in relation to processes of industrialisation urbanisation secularisation rationalisation and the development of world market systems Modernisation occurs when societies when countries adopt the processes or characteristics of another which they deem to be positive to their way of life To avoid this labeling generalisations of cultural theory are better replaced with ethnographic particularities As Comaroff and Comaroff put it The radical opposition between pre-historical tradition and capitalist modernity survives in the discourses of our age popular and professional alike Indeed in directing much of our attention to peoples on the other side of the great rift do we not still foster a lurking primitivism And with it all the myths of our own disenchantment The modernisation theory can be seen in two theories of social change they can inter relate and mesh in some cases A - The Evolutionary Theory B - Functionalist Theory A - THE EVOLUTIONARY THEORY 1 Social change being uni linear moving in a single direction ordered and progressive So starting from a primitive state and evolving from there 2This movement is overall a good thing because as humanity progresses so does civilisation which benefits humanity 3It states that the rate of social change is a slow gradual process Most importantly social change in agreement with Charles Darwin approach to biological development was evolutionary not revolutionary B - FUNCTIONALIST THEORY Society is made up of different institutions and each must keep to its specific function in order for society to work harmoniously Change occurs when this harmony is disrupted So modernisation occurs when a society whose values are not based around the progressive nature of modernisation will experience change when they come in contact or adopt these new ideas Hence a society that
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