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Context I-800-600 BCE- The Archaic Age A-Foreign Trade 1-the Phonecians renewed the old trade contacts B-Development of Writing 1-the Phonecians taught the Greeks how to apply their alphabet writing system to the spoken language of Greece 2-Books plays epics start to become written C-Establishment of City-States 1-because of rising populations and need for fertile land D-New Military Technology 1-the hoplite was a heavily armed infantry soldier 2-the hoplite phalanx was a formation of hoplites trained to move and act in unison E-Greek city-states developed constitutions and democracy 1-Some city-states turned to tyrants while some turned to democracies during this time F-Athens was a democracy 1-Athens constitution developed over many years and in many forms to eventually guarantee equality under law for all citizens 2-Solon was elected archon in 594 BC to reform the government and establish a constitution for Athens a-he eliminated debt and slavery and restructured the government giving more power to landless classes 3-After Solon retired Athens was seized by the tyrant Peisistratos and later his son Hippias 4-The Athenians threw out Hippias in 510 BC and elected Cleisthenes G- By 500 BCE almost all-Greek city-states had established a democratic constitution II-500-323 BCE Classical Period A-490-479 BCE 1-Greek Persian Wars 2-490 BCE first Persian War- Athenians defeat Persians at Marathon 3-480 BCE second Persian War- Persia destroys Athens B-The Peloponnesian Wars 433-405 BCE 1-Age of Pericles 2-Athenian Democracy reaches perfection C-Democracy 1-Relationship between individual and state a-no last names only names designating citizenship b-public life emphasized over private life 2-Religion and government were linked a-sacrifice and participation in other rituals was a public act b-citizenship required participation in the state religion Identification Pericles funeral oration was given after the first battles of the Peloponnesian War 431430BC Pericles gave the speech to all Athenian citizens and anyone who wished to participate in the ceremonies The speech was intended to honor the men who fought and died in the early battles of the Peloponnesian
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