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Politics and War Chronology 1434-1464 Cosimo de Medici rules Republic of Florence as first citizen 1448-53 Series of victories wins back for France almost all the previous English gains End of Hundred Years War 1449 Birth of Lorenzo de Medici 1450 Mercenary leader Francesco Sforza seizes power in Milan 1453 Byzantine Empire conquered by the Turks The capture of Constantinople by Turks leads to large numbers of teachers scholars and books coming to Italy 1455-85 Long civil wars - Wars of the Roses - devastate England Final victory of Henry IV founds Tudor dynasty Barons stripped of much of their power Medieval period ends 1469-1492 Lorenzo de Medici the Magnificent rules Florence 1478 The Inquisition is set up in Spain to persecute Jews Muslims and heretics 1480 Lodovico Sforza seizes power in Milan 1494 At Sforzas invitation Charles VIII of France invades Italy 1495 French capture Naples but forced to leave by an alliance of Spain the Empire England Venice and Milan 1499 Louis XII of France seizes Milan 1504 Treaty of Blois - France recognizes Spanish control of Naples 1513 France forced to leave Milan after defeats in Italy 1515 Battle of Marignano Francis I of France defeats Swiss and regains Milan 1519 Charles archduke of Austria and king of Spain becomes Emperor Charles V the most powerful ruler in Europe 1525 Battle of Pavia Francis defeated by Charles V of Spain and forced to agree to the Treaty of Madrid 1526 Treaty of Madrid Francis I of France renounces treaty and war begins again 1527 Troops of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor sack Rome and
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