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In his Two Dogmas of Empiricism Quine addresses what he views as problematic claims made by Carnap The first problem Quine has with Carnaps epistemology is about his definition of state-descriptions The problem is in two parts first Quine says that Carnaps version of analyticity is conditional because it requires atomic sentences in a language to be mutually independent The second part of the problem is that Carnaps attempt to explore analyticity by way of his state-descriptions results in a problematic definition of analyticity which ends up being more indicative of logical truth In conclusion Quine presents a solution to his problems with Carnap positing that the boundary between synthetic and analytic is imagined In his attempt to define analyticity Quine encounters a problematic attempt at defining the term by Carnap Carnap has tended to explain analyticity by appeal to what he calls state-descriptions195 Carnaps state-descriptions are problematic for two reasons one reason is that a statement is explained as analytic when it comes out true under every state description195 this necessitates every atomic sentence to be mutually independent- meaning that two statements that mean the same thing are supposed to exist as two completely separate meanings However as Quine points out this would mean there would be a state-description which assigned truth to John is a bachelor and falsity to John is married and consequently All bachelors are married would turn out synthetic rather than analytic under the proposed criterion195 This truth gives rise to the second problem of Carnaps state-descriptions that analyticity as it refers to state-descriptions only works for languages that do not contain synonymous words such as bachelor and unmarried So Quine submits that Carnaps state-descriptions are indicative of logical truth not of analyticity To generalize these problems that Quine has with Carnaps philosophical system equate to a single point of disagreement that there is an absolute distinction between analytic and synthetic Quine points to our pragmatic inclinations to adjust
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