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Broadly defined as the faithful representation of reality or verisimilitude realism is a literary technique practiced by many schools of writing Although strictly speaking realism is a technique it also denotes a particular kind of subject matter especially the representation of middle-class life A reaction against romanticism an interest in scientific method the systematizing of the study of documentary history and the influence of rational philosophy all affected the rise of realism According to William Harmon and Hugh Holman Where romanticists transcend the immediate to find the ideal and naturalists plumb the actual or superficial to find the scientific laws that control its actions realists center their attention to a remarkable degree on the immediate the here and now the specific action and the verifiable consequence A Handbook to Literature 428 Many people have suggested that there is no clear distinction between realism and its related late nineteenth-century movement naturalism As Donald Pizer notes in his introduction to The Cambridge Companion to American Realism and Naturalism Howells to London the term realism is difficult to define in part because it is used differently in European contexts than in American literature Pizer suggests that whatever was being produced in fiction during the 1870s and 1880s that was new interesting and roughly similar in a number of ways can be designated as realism and that an equally new interesting and roughly similar body of writing produced at the turn of the century can be designated as naturalism Put rather too simplistically one rough distinction made by critics is that realism espousing a deterministic philosophy and focusing on the lower classes is considered naturalism In American literature the term realism encompasses the period of time from the Civil War to the turn of the century during which William Dean Howells Rebecca Harding Davis Henry James Mark Twain and others wrote fiction devoted to accurate representation and an exploration of American lives in various contexts As the United States
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