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Somalia or formally known as the Somali Democratic Republic It is bound on north by Gulf of Aden in east and south by the Indian Ocean to the southwest by Kenya west by Ethiopia and northwest by Djibouti The total are of Somalia is 637 000 sq kilometers Mogadishu is the capital of Somalia and is also the largest city Other principle cities include Hargeysa Kismaayo and Marka Somalia has a long Coastline which extends over 3025 sq kilometers However it has few natural harbors It is dominated by series of mountain ranges in the northern part with elevations between 915 and 2135 meters In the south a wide costal plain with many sand dunes borders Indian Ocean Climate in Somalia ranges from tropical to subtropical and from arid to semiarid Temperatures usually average 28 C The temperature can get as low as 0C in the mountain areas and as high as 47C along the cost The monsoon winds bring a dry season from September to December and a rainy season from March to May The average annual rainfall is only about 280 mm Vegetation in Somalia consists chiefly of coarse grass and stunted thorn and acacia trees Aromatic flora producing frankincense and myrrh are indigenous to the mountain slopes In southern Somalia eucalyptus euphorbia and mahogany trees are found Wildlife is abundant and includes crocodiles elephants giraffes leopards lions zebras and many poisonous snakes Mineral resources in Somalia are many however none have yet been exploited Known deposits include petroleum copper manganese gypsum iron marble salt tin and uranium Somalia has few natural resources The grasslands are suitable for grazing livestock and the fertile land in the river valleys of Genale and Shabeelle and in some coastal areas is used for agricultural crops Somalia has a population of 7433922 as of year 2000 The population density is about 12 persons per square kilometer The vast majority of
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