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Corruption is not a new phenomenon in todays society but it is an increasing problem It is an ailment that causes many problems for countries as well as international relations When one thinks of corruption they do not think of the consequences that it brings along with it However in Susan Rose-Ackermans article Bribes Patronage and Gift Giving along with Richard Friman and Peter Andreas in their article International Relations and the Illicit Global Economy they provide two different types of corruption and the negative effects it brings along with it Although their approach to the topic is different their main emphases is the same corruption is harmful In Susan Rose-Ackermans article she distinguishes between bribes tips gifts and prices in a model that imposes the existence of a quid pro quo and the presence or absence of an agent or a principal According to Ackerman agency principal relationships in the public sector gives rise to corrupt opportunities Therefore Ackerman believes that one way to reduce corruption is to eliminate the agency principal relationship If citizens dealt directly with the principal then bribes or gifts to the agent would be avoided When an explicit exchange is taking place with a principal it is seen as a price and with an agent it is seen as a bribe On the other hand if no quid pro quo is expected by the principal it is recognized as a gift and as a tip by the agent However if a gift is large enough to have an impact on the recipients behaviour a quid pro is implicit In this article Ackerman is arguing that in many societies there is no distinction between the public and private roles Especially in developing countries where gift giving and patronage are accepted practices In developing countries the line between market and family and between the public and the private sector is often indistinct She believes that although personal ties in the market
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