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An experiment allows the researcher to control the situation being studied Instead of being a passive recorder of what is going on the researcher actively does something that he or she thinks will affect the subjects behavior and then observes what happens These procedures allow the experimenter to draw conclusions about cause and effectThe aspect of an experiment situation manipulated or varied by the researcher is known as the independent variable The reaction of the behavior that the researcher tries to predict- is the dependent variable Every experiment has at least one independent and one dependent variableEverything about the experimental situation expects the independent variable is held constant that is it is kept the same for all subjects Holding everything but the independent variable constant ensures that whatever happens is due to the researchers manipulation and nothing else It allows you to rule out other interpretationsExperiments usually require both an experimental condition and a comparison or control condition In the control condition subjects are treated exactly like those in the experimental condition expect they are not exposed to the same treatment or manipulation of the independent variable Without a control condition you cant be sure that the behavior you are interested in would not have occurred anyway even without your manipulationTo accomplish this we can use random assignment to place people in the groups We might randomly give each person a number then put those with even numbers in the experimental group and all those with odd numbers in the control group At the beginning of the study each subject will have the same probability as any other subject of being assigned to a given groupInstead of having the control subjects refrain from we will give them a placebo fake treatment Placebos often take the form of pills or injections containing no active ingredientsBibliographyfgfgg 1980rderer1994
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