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More specifically Organization Design is a formal guided process for integrating the people information and technology of an organization It is used to match the form of the organization as closely as possible to the purposes the organization seeks to achieve Through the design process organizations act to improve the probability that the collective efforts of members will be successful Typically design is approached as an internal change under the guidance of an external facilitator Managers and members work together to define the needs of the organization then create systems to meet those needs most effectively The facilitator assures that a systematic process is followed and encourages creative thinking Hierarchical Systems Western organizations have been heavily influenced by the command and control structure of ancient military organizations and by the turn of the century introduction of Scientific Management Most organizations today are designed as a bureaucracy in which authority and responsibility are arranged in a hierarchy Within the hierarchy rules policies and procedures are uniformly and impersonally applied to exert control over member behaviors Activity is organized within sub-units bureaus or departments in which people perform specialized functions such as manufacturing sales or accounting People who perform similar tasks are clustered together The same basic organizational form is assumed to be appropriate for any organization be it a government school business church or fraternity It is familiar predictable and rational It is what comes immediately to mind when we discover that we really have to get organized As familiar and rational as the functional hierarchy may be there are distinct disadvantages to blindly applying the same form of organization to all purposeful groups To understand the problem begin by observing that different groups wish to achieve different outcomes Second observe that different groups have different members and that each group possesses a different culture These differences in desired outcomes and in people should alert us to the danger of assuming there is
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