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The first five chapters of this book provide the foundation for Ray Kurzweil to issue his predictions later in the book It includes many theorems of physics and mathematics so if one is not relatively familiar with them it is possible to miss these essential principles Nevertheless his choice of words delineates some difficult concepts making this tough but rewarding reading The first chapter ultimately leads up to the most important principle of the book The Law of Accelerating Returns which follows -An evolutionary process is not a closed system therefore evolution draws upon the chaos in the larger system in which it takes place for its options of diversity and -Evolution builds on its own increasing order Therefore -In an evolutionary process order increases exponentially Therefore -Time exponentially speeds up Therefore -The returns the valuable products of the process accelerate Kurzweil uses this fundamental principle in addition to others to justify his many predictions The next chapter deals with the process of evolution The evolution of intelligent beings has taken billions of years But we have created something that is evolving at an extremely faster pace technology In a matter of about a thousand years human-created technology has changed from nonexistent to essential to most people So human intelligence a product of evolution is far more intelligent than its creator And so too will the intelligence that we are creating come to exceed the intelligence of its creator the Law of Accelerating Returns predicts it Alan Turing a British mathematician who helped crack Germanys Enigma code during World War II was on the forefront of artificial intelligence He devised a test duly called the Turing Test in which a human judge interviews both a computer and one or more human foils using terminals If the human judge is unable to reliably unmask the computer then the computer wins In Turing view thinking involves conscious intentions The human brain has about 100 billion neurons With
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