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1CFCs and substitutes and the ozone hole The environmental effects of CFCs and their substitutes aCFCs - highly stable molecules lifetime in the atmosphere of between 50 and 100 years contain 2 or 3 chlorine atoms bCFCs substitutes transitional compounds iHCFCs - one or more of the chlorine atoms has been replaced by hydrogen atoms lifetime in the atmosphere about 20 years have a tenth or twentieth of the potential damage of the CFCs iiHFCs - all the chlorine is replaced by hydrogen - not damaging to ozone - lifetime in the atmosphere about 20 years cAll of these three families of compounds are also very potent greenhouse gases dSome hydrocarbons - propane and isobutene - are now increasingly used as a greener alternative to both the CFCs and their transitional replacement The hole in the ozone layer aThe stratosphere - 10 to 50 km above the Earths surface - contains ozone which absorbs some of the more dangerous forms of solar radiation UV radiation and X-Rays b The thickness of the ozone layer can fluctuate by several percentages every day cThe ozone layer is affected by halogenated substances such as chlorine Cl fluorine Fl and bromine Br compounds dProduction and use of these substances is being reduced substantially under the Montreal Protocol eDeterioration of the ozone layer is typically a global problem 2Air pollution and what are the main pollutions In burning process the following is involved Resources are consumed Useful services are provided Waste gases are produced Here are the main air pollutants that arise from fossil fuel burning along with some of their key effects on human health oSulphur dioxide SO2 - causes acid rain - source power stations and other large combustion plants oNitrogen oxides NOx - causes acid rain - source Transport oParticulates black smoke particles - graded by size - PM10 are simply all the particles less than 10 micrometer across
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