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The cognitive approaches to the study of motivation come with one important thing that drive approaches did not account for the O Drive theorist dealt mainly with the stimulus and the response produced cognitive theorists factored in the role of the organism that receives the stimulus Cognitive theorists explained that it is not just acting on a whim but rather that there is some thought process involved Though it may be a short process and the action may come soon after the stimulus the organism thinks about what to do and doesnt just do it Tolman comes to us with the explanation that cognition was and is involved in the motivation of behavior Immediately Tolman brings to the table what both Freud and Skinner did not thinking Tolman also brings two other very important factors that set him out from the drive theorists expectation and goal Expectation is the cognitive process that tells the organism what might be able to satisfy a certain physiological need Goal is a plan to engage in a behavior based on the expectation to achieve a certain outcome Tolmans theory is somewhat similar to Thorndikes Law of Effect in some aspects although he adds a few twists to include expectation Tolman theorized that once a behavior is completed the outcome influences the organisms likeliness to engage in the same or similar behavior again based on the organisms need satisfaction However the outcome does not directly determine an organisms behavior in the future the expectation of a specific outcome predict s behavior Rodney has a need for hunger satisfaction His goal is to satisfy the hunger need with a nice ice cream cone His expectation is that if he asks mommy in a polite manner that she will allow him to get an ice cream cone This time mommy allows him to get an ice cream cone The next day comes and it is 10 AM Rodney is hungry
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