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The core element in the marketing mix is the companys product because it provides the functional requirements sought by customers Marketing managers develop their products into brands which help to create a unique position in the minds of customers Brand superiority leads to high sales the ability to charge price premiums and the power to resist distributor power The management of products and brands is regarded a key factor in marketing success BRANDING Before discussing the concept of brand loyalty it is important to explain the term brand According to Aaker 1991a7 defines a brand as A distinguishing name andor a symbol such as a logo trademark or package design intended to identify the goods or services of either one seller or a group of sellers and to differentiate those goods or services from those of competitors Thus a brand identifies the seller or manufacturer of a product which can be consistent in providing a specific set of features benefits and services to the buyer Branding is defined as a process by which companies distinguish their product offerings from the competition Some brands are supported by logos for example the prancing hose of Ferrari By developing an individual identity branding permits customers to develop associations with the brand eg prestige economy and helps in purchasing decision Chernatony 1991 Branding carries an influence on consumers perceptions since it is well known that consumers fail to distinguish between brands in each product category in blind product testing As brand loyalty is a basic part of consumer model behaviour our area of interest is to explore the nature of brand loyalty and the possible factors determining it BRAND LOYALTY The importance of brand loyalty has been recognized in marketing literature for the last three decades It apply to those customers who follows a programmed purchase decision rather than leaping from problem recognition to actual purchase As Runyon 1980 p355 puts it Brand loyalty
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