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It was way back in the 1970s when Kernighan and Ritchie were working on creating a new programming language they would soon call C It was called this because a language called B preceded it C was created with simplicity and flexibility in mind Its primary use was for writing operating systems however it became popular for a wide variety of other programs The one thing that C lacked was support for objects it was a procedural-oriented program In a procedural-based programming language a programmer writes out instructions that are followed by a computer from start to finish This kind of programming had its advantages but an object-oriented language makes programming clearer and easier to understand Object-oriented software is all about using objects An object actually contains code member functions and data data members Traditionally code and data have been kept apart For example in the C language units of code are called functions while units of data are called structures Functions and structures are not formally connected in C A C function can operate on more than one type of structure and more than one function can operate on the same structure In object-oriented programming code and data are merged into a single indivisible thing -- an object This has some big advantages A primary rule of object-oriented programming is this as the user of an object you should never need to peek inside the box The way objects work are that a message is sent in and the object knows how to handle it Thus the user never needs to see the implementation details By not knowing what is going on inside an object the user is unable to change the internal implementation code Providing access to an object only through its messages while keeping the details private is called encapsulation The benefits of objects do not stop with encapsulation Objects also have the special ability to inherit functionality from other objects
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