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Word Count: 363
Photosynthesis and Respiration Photosynthesis is the process by which cells use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar Photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for nearly all living things Plants use the glucose produced to build leaves flowers fruits and seeds Photosynthesis is broken down into two separate stages the light-dependant reactions and light-independent reactions In the light-dependant reaction the chloroplast traps light energy from the sun and it is converted into ATP and NADPH energy In the light-independent reaction NADPH delivers the hydrogen and carbon dioxide atoms that help form glucose and ATP donates energy to areas where glucose is put together from carbon It occurs in chlorophyll bearing cells Respiration is the decomposition pathway that provides the energy cells needed to function There are two major purposes of respiration to release free energy by oxidizing sugars or organic substances and to make ATP It is carried out by NAD and FAD Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and receives electrons from decomposed structures while anaerobic respiration occurs without oxygen and less energy is released Respiration occurs in all cells The three major steps involved are glycolysis Krebs cycle and the electron transport system In glycolysis the enzymes oxidize glucose and split into carbon molecules releasing ATP In the Krebs Cycle ATP is produced when the carbon molecules are oxidized to carbon dioxide In the electron transport system the NADH that came from the Krebs cycle is used and e- is given off The hydrogen leaves and NADH is transformed into NAD ATP is created because of the H ion The major differences between photosynthesis and respiration are that photosynthesis occurs in chlorophyll bearing cells and respiration occurs in all cells Photosynthesis can usually only occur in light while respiration can occur at any time The input of photosynthesis is carbon dioxide and water and the output is reduced carbon compounds oxygen and water The input of respiration is reduced
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