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Prohibition means the forbidding by law the manufacturing and selling of alcoholic beverages In the late 1800s a period of reforms in the US many people started to believe that alcohol had harmful effects on society Due to the efforts of the Anti-Saloon League the Womens Christian Temperance Union and other organizations the eighteenth amendment of prohibition was ratified But since the beginning of the prohibition era the US faced difficulties in enforcing the amendment The prohibition era which lasted from 1920 to 1933 is referred to in many sources as the thirteen years that changed or damaged America During those thirteen years prohibition was the cause of many problems in the US Finally in 1933 the twenty-first amendment which repealed prohibition was ratified and since then alcohol is legal in the US Since 1840 onward millions of immigrants from Germany Ireland Italy and other countries in Europe came to the US bringing with them the culture of drinking Behr p49 The continuing immigration increased the number of people consuming alcohol and with it the liquor industry The leaders of the Temperance movement were concerned about this growing phenomenon They considered drinking as a mortal sin and believed that excessive drinking caused spiritual neglect Behr p21 The businesses that sold beer whiskey and other alcoholic beverages were called glass saloons In order to increase their profit saloon owners introduced gambling and prostitution into their establishments Kerr Many Americans considered saloons as offensive and noxious which contributed to the mostly negative public opinion about alcohol In the economic aspect factory owners complained that alcohol made the workers inefficient and careless As new machines and technologies were developed more specialization precision and speed were required from the workers and those who drank became a risk to employers and their fellow workers Engelmann p12 A theory developed by physicians in the late said that
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