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Ethical naturalism as advocated by GEMoore is also an example of a consequentiality meta- ethical theory Consequentiality derives notions of what is right or wrong from what is good or bad For example of an ethical pluralist too since he states that there are many good things which are good which have intrinsic value Another example of consequentiality ethics is utilitarianism which states that only good thing is pleasure and the only bad thing is pain It follows that the right action is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain In contrast a meta-ethics in which what is good is derived from what is right is called a deontological theory The principle example of a deontologist is Kant who advocates a system of life based on what he calls the categorical imperative which in a simple form may be stated as the rule do unto others as you would be done by Ethics is concerned with what is right or wrong and with what is good and bad Meta-ethics is concerned with explaining how our ethical sentiments arise from metaphysical facts about the nature of our existence Examples of complete meta-ethical systems are those of Plato and Hume Plato seeks to enlighten our understanding of morality by showing us that we are fallen beings Hume seeks to enlighten our understanding of morality by showing us that we are information processing machines Hare a prescriptivist produce an argument against naturalism something like this To commit to a naturalistic utilitarian position is to define value and therefore good in terms of brain states But having done this to then say that happiness is valuable as would happiness is good - in neither case would we be commending happiness which is something Hare maintains a utilitarian would want to do All we wouldve done is give these brain states the names value and good in addition to happiness so we would not in later saying happiness
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