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The Great Pyramid The great pyramid was built during the reign of Khufu 2nd king of the fourth dynasty 2720-2560 BC It stands on the Giza plateau nearby Cairo and is the biggest pyramid in the world It measures 230 m 756 ft on each side of its base and originally measured 147 m 482 ft high Beginning in the 10th century AD the entire Giza complex served as a source of building materials for the construction of Cairo as a result all three pyramids were stripped of their original smooth outer facing of limestone The core masonry consists of large blocks of local limestone taken from the nearby quarries and built around and over a rocky knoll The size of the knoll cannot be determined since it is completely covered by the pyramid The entrance to the pyramid is in the center of the northern face It is located in the thirteenth course of masonry from the base This entrance has a pointed roof formed of massive slabs of local limestone and opens into a long steeply descending passage From there a 36 meters long ascending passage leads to a 35 meters long horizontal passage that leads to the so called Queens chamber This chamber measures 52 by 57 meters and the maximum height of its pointed roof is about 15 meters The north and south walls each have a small hole a few centimeters square about 1 meter from the floor These lead into narrow channels that originally opened on the exterior of the pyramid At the juncture of the ascending and horizontal passage is an opening of a shaft which descends to a depth of 60 meters It opens into the lower part of the descending passage close to the
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