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History and Systems of Psychology A critical review of Littman RA Motives History and Causes 1958 Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1 What problem situation prompted Littman to write this article Page 115 Para 2 Richard Littman states in the cited paragraph that firstly an unjustifiably large amount of time had been dedicated to this controversial subject motivation The very fact that the debate had persisted for such duration signaled to him a problem Secondly lack of agreement among psychologists on issues of motivation gave him the inkling that none of them were probably correct on the issue For example disagreements in definitions and constructions arise between Maslow Being Motivation and Deficiency Motivation Freud Unconscious Motivation and Lewin tension-system hypothesis Although Freuds work was somewhat antiquated at the 1958 symposium followers of his persist to this day and doubtlessly proponents of all three theorists were present 2 What did Littman identify as the causes of the problem Page 115 Para 3 Page 132 Para 3 According to Littman the cause of disagreement centers around a proliferation of invented terms surrounding motivation He is referring to explanatory concepts lacking verifiable or at least in some way observable referents These invented terms are fictitious they do not purport any new knowledge but rather retranslate existing knowledge in less attackable language When theorists simply invent terms they are bound to disagree and the reason is this the invented term has little or no foundation in reality Terms may be defined to refer to an exact observable referent however most invented terms carry with them the excess baggage of surplus meaning That is when a term such as Hull Spence and Millers Hunger Drive simply refers to the amount of food one eats in proportion to the number of hours since ones last meal it may be used as a referent term However in the English language Hunger Drive carries excess meaning that
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