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Word Count: 2,165
Between the years of 490BC to 480BC a series of events occurred mainly wars which saw dramatic changes in Athens and soon became the supreme military state of Greece They achieved this status by outnumbering the power and resources of the Persian Empire in a number of successful victories and driving the Persians out of Ionia and other Greek states which had become medised over the wars There were a number of factors which contributed to the victory of the Greeks in the Persian invasions which included their various strategies of geographical knowledge superior leadership unity fighting techniques and even luck The Greek use of geographical knowledge was a valuable factor which greatly contributed to their victory In the battles of the Persian invasions the Greeks to their advantage with the exception of the Battle of Plataea chose all battle areas Confined passes and valleys and narrow straits were their chosen positions of attack They used this to their advantage by strategically choosing areas in which the Persian armys enormous numbers wouldnt be effective where the land or space was narrow where the Persians could be bottlenecked The Battle of Marathon is a successful battle in which this technique was used The Greeks had chosen this area as a suitable area for battle as it was on heights commanding both roads to Athens covering both coast road and the hills to the rear After the Greek victory at Marathon the Greeks were able cut down the Persians after fleeing by securing the land making it hard to escape by using their knowledge of the land The Persians were confined between the sea and the hills with the only chances to escape by fleeing to the north where they were cut down in the area between the sea and the marsh or to flee to ships which were standing offshore Again the use of Greek knowledge of the landscape was used in the Battle of Thermopylae
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