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The Rise of Communism in Russia Unless we accept the claim that Lenins coup d tat gave birthto an entirely new state and indeed to a new era in the history ofmankind we must recognize in todays Soviet Union the old empire of theRussians -- the only empire that survived into the mid 1980s Luttwak1 In their Communist Manifesto of 1848 Karl Marx and FriedrichEngels applied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in whichall class differences would disappear and humankind would live inharmony Marx and Engels claimed to have discovered a scientificapproach to socialism based on the laws of history They declared thatthe course of history was determined by the clash of opposing forcesrooted in the economic system and the ownership of property Just asthe feudal system had given way to capitalism so in time capitalismwould give way to socialism The class struggle of the future would bebetween the bourgeoisie who were the capitalist employers and theproletariat who were the workers The struggle would end according toMarx in the socialist revolution and the attainment of full communismGroilers Encyclopedia Socialism of which Marxism-Leninism is a takeoff originatedin the West Designed in France and Germany it was brought into Russiain the middle of the nineteenth century and promptly attracted supportamong the countrys educated public-minded elite who at that time werecalled intelligentsia Pipes 21 After Revolution broke out overEurope in 1848 the modern working class appeared on the scene as a majorhistorical force However Russia remained out of the changes thatEurope was experiencing As a socialist movement and inclination theRussian Social-Democratic Party continued the traditions of all theRussian Revolutions of the past with the goal of conquering politicalfreedom Daniels 7 As early as 1894 when he was twenty-four Lenin had become arevolutionary agitator and a convinced Marxist He exhibited his newfaith and his polemical talents in a diatribe of that year
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