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Ideology and politicsThe purpose of this paper is to treat the similarly and differences of liberalism Iwill use John Locke and Adam Smith to represent classical liberals John Stuart Mill andJohn Maynard Keynes will be used to show contemporary liberals John LockeIn John Locke s Second Treatise of Government he develops a theory ofgovernment as a product of a social contract which when broken justifies the creation ofa new government for the protection of life liberty and property He begins his argumentby developing a theory of the state of nature which iswhat state all men are naturally in and that is a state of perfect freedomto order their actions and dispose of their possessions and persons as theythink fit within the bounds of the law of nature without asking leave ordepending upon the will of any other man1The state of nature includes the law of nature to govern it which obliges everyoneand reason which is that law teaches all mankind who will but consult it 2 The stateof nature also includes inequalitysince gold and silver being little useful to the life of a man in proportionto food raiment and carriage has its value only from the consent of menwhereof labour yet makes in great part the measure it is plain that menhave agreed to a disproportional and unequal possession of the earth3In Locke s state on nature there are also three distinct problemsFirst there is no established settled known law As each man consults his own law ofnature he receives a slightly different interpretation Secondly there no known and indifferent judge Which creates the problem of trying todecide which is the correct law of nature which will be followed in an impartial manor Thirdly there is insufficient force of execution This is the problem of how to carry outthe decision of the law of nature on another when he has a different interpretation ordoesn t consult the law of nature Locke states that the three
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