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Studies of ethnicity and educational attainment have shown that ethnic minorities tend to do less well than other members of the population The Swann report Education for All found that of the different ethnic minority groups it was the African-Caribbeans who were most likely to underachieve in education This could be due to different factors from family life and cultural differences to racism within schools Jensen and Eysenck attempted to explain the underachievement of black people as being caused by a genetically inherited level of intelligence which is lower than that of white people They believed that a lower average score in IQ tests proved this but environmental factors have shown that IQ tests are not a completely reliable measurement of intelligence Differences in cultural backgrounds and primary socialisation can have an effect on performance in tests As Bodmer suggests years of discrimination against black people prevents an equalisation of environment with white people Family life can have an effect on achievement It has been suggested that there is a high proportion of single parent families in the black population with many single mothers working This would seem to show that many black children have less parental supervision during their early years than children from other backgrounds Many sociologists believe that parental interest plays a big part in developing the childs attitude towards education and the value placed upon it Perhaps the most important factor in achievement is racism within the education system Much of this can be seen to be unintentional with materials used in schools supporting a negative image of ethnic minorities Coard says that reading books often only contain white people and that when black people do appear they are usually shown in subservient roles He also says that there is an absence of black culture in the curriculum Wrights studies of primary schools found that teachers had low expectations of black children and that treatment of their
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