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All mean is that every man loathes the thought that he might be taken captive by a lie which would prevent him from distinguishing between reality and unreality That his soul should be possessed by a lie whereby he is continually deceived and irrevocably ignorant is something that no man wants to accept -Socrates Platos Republic Book II Muthos for the ancient Greeks held many meanings both as a word itself and as a tradition The origin of the word muthos was simply something delivered by word of mouth but eventually came to mean a design or plan as in a plot of a drama Then with the association with tale or story muthos connoted a poetic or legendary tale as opposed to a historical account till finally the word came to mean something that is not true1 However like the Fates mythology wove the fabric of the Hellenes lives it gave them birth animation and death Originally oral traditions with Indo-european Mycenean and local roots the myths began to take written form around the 8th century BCE with Hesiod and Homer Greek mythology gave foundation to local religious cosmological and ethical beliefs Yet their myths never became static or inert and were constantly subject to variations and reinterpretation Further because of the liberal nature of Greek society and the metaphysical cosmogony set forth by Hesiod in his Theogony it was opportune to give rise to philosophical discourse based on abstractions In the 4th century BCE the eminent philosopher Plato began his dialectical inquiry first confronting Greek beliefs and society then attempting to reshape them through his prolific works Prior to this time philosophers such as Democratus had diverted discourse to a natural ontology leaving behind the roots of a metaphysical exegesis In response Plato attempted to meld the metaphysical and the natural with his abstract theory of Forms Pre-socratics such as Parmenides had demonstrated the many problematic stances of the way of opinion Therefore
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